Our Service to the People

We believe in life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, and to the fruits of our labor, travel freely, to be left alone, speak your mind, defend your self, and work and be productive. Our organization is founded on these principals and our work here is to provide the guidance to navigate through the hazards, and ultimately reach our goals.

Consulting

We provide the following consulting services:

Legal & Lawful Government Consulting

Legal & Lawful Business Consulting

Legal & Lawful Personnel Consulting

Legal & Lawful Tax Consulting

Legal & Lawful Finance Consulting 

Legal & Lawful Accounting Consulting 

Legal & Lawful Mergers & Acquisition Consulting

Sales

We provide personalized actions plans, Training, education, and on call services. Our goal is to provide the strategy needed to overcome present challenges.   

Training

We provide education and training to our clients on all the different consulting modules and action plans.  

 

SUPPORT: WETHEPEOPLELIBERTYNOW @https://www.givesendgo.com/wethepeoplelibertynow



LIBERTY FOR WE THE PEOPLE IS OUR FIRST PRIORITY

THIS CAN BE ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH EDUCATION AND TRAINING

We believe education and training will provide critical skills to take back control of your liberty. This all starts with our first conversation. The people must reach out!  We promise you that we will open your eyes to the distractions which, on a daily basis undermine your efforts to reach your personal, business, and family goals, of life, liberty, private property, financial freedom, and the pursuit of happiness. 

We have a few challenge questions:

1.) Why do you pay income tax if you do not make income?

Former IRS Commissioner Charles O. Rossotti stated in a delegated response letter that: “The law itself does not require individuals to file a form 1040.”

There are no “regulations” extending to the Commissioner of the IRS or the Department of the Treasury their authority to the 50 Union States – 26 CFR 7802(a).

In IRS publication 519, “A nonresident alien” [American National] who never worked in the U.S. Government in the United States [meaning D.C.] will not be liable for the U.S. [D.C.] income tax.

26 USC 4161(a) says that a manufacturer must pay a 10% tax on artificial lures.

26 USC 7806(b) says that Title 26 is not the law. In other words, "No inference, implication or presumption of legislative construction shall be drawn or made by reason of the location or grouping of any particular section or provision or portion of this title..." N.B. "legislative construction" means "law."

26 USC 4161(a) says lures must be taxed. Nordby supply Co. applied 26 USC 7806(b) to invalidate the lure tax.

The Internal Revenue Code is not the law. It only defines a contract between the IRS and the individual.

The Internal Revenue Code itself provides that nothing is to be inferred from the grouping or indexing of any particular section, 26 U.S.C. Sec. 7806(b), and this court has held that the title of a statute cannot limit the plain meaning of its text. Pike v. United States, 340 F.2d 487 (9th Cir. 1965). Therefore, the fact that Sec. 4161(a) is located in that part of the Code dealing with "recreational equipment" and "sporting goods" is of little significance.

Where is the income which is taxable; U.S. Constitution Article 1 Section 8 clause 1 ;The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

Amendment / Article  XVI

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several states, and without regard to any census or enumeration. : https://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/amendmentxvi

U.S. Supreme Court Petitioner, pro se ; Called the proposition that the Sixteenth Amendment allows a direct income tax without apportionment an "erroneous assumption?"; This article XVI mentions ; lay and collect taxes on income; This income is the income of the several states; from what ever source derived in the business of the several states; without regard to any census or enumeration; of the people their in; of the several states; which is an erroneous assumption of having or dealing with one of the people in any of the several states; or the individual in any of the several states; this article XVI  has everything to do with the several states and their income from the business of the collection of taxes through duties, imposts, and excises the several states serving the people their in; link below if you would like to read his remarks: https://www.supremecourt.gov/DocketPDF/18/18-7887/87908/20190213113417802_00000007.pdf ( remember Title 26 sec 7806 no legal effect)

taxing power :https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/taxing_power

Under the Sixteenth Amendment, Congress has the power to collect income taxes

The Internal Revenue Code is the main law governing income taxes. The Internal Revenue Code is codified as Title 26 of the United States Code.

The congress has the Internal Revenue Code law governing income taxes, which is Title 26 U.S. Code. Tax Court is a court of record. It is not an administrative court unless you permit it to quit being a court of record. Remember stay in a court of record do not leave!

26 USC 7441: Status. "There is hereby established, under article I of the Constitution of the United States, a court of record to be known as the United States Tax Court. The members of the Tax Court shall be the chief judge and the judges of the Tax Court."

Remember Title 26 U.S.C. Section 7806; 26 U.S. Code Sub chapter A - Application of Internal Revenue Laws;§ 7806. Construction of title ;shall be given no legal effect. Which means no authority to tax income or anything relating to profit from business income or corporate income; remember construction of title means title 26 u.s.c. shall be given no legal effect; or jurisdiction to regulate any tax; unless you agree; volunteer; hire an attorney; decide to leave a court of record; if you have any questions please reach out we are here to help!  

Show me the tax law training and education 1 of 4: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ikjv7wwQoeM

Show me the tax law training and education 2 of 4: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZMbZd6fmi9o

Show me the tax law training and education 3 of 4: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lQiEqJ5-fo4

Show me the tax law training and education 4 of 4: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VxljnlXz204&t=11s

2.) Why do we have property tax if we own private property?

“The American people, before developing a properly functioning stable government, developed a stable system of land ownership, whereby the people owned their land absolutely and in a manner similar to the king in common-law England. As “allodium“ which means or is defined as man’s own land, which he possesses merely in his own right, without owing any rent or service to any superior.” Wallace v Harmstead, 44 Pa. 492 (1863).

The American people, newly established sovereigns in this republic after the victory achieved during the Revolutionary War, became complete owners in their land, beholden to no lord or superior; as sovereign freeholders in the land themselves. These freeholders in the original thirteen states now held allodial the land they possessed before the war only feudally. “This new and more powerful title protected the sovereigns from unwarranted intrusions or attempted takings of their land, and more importantly it secured in them a right to own land absolutely in perpetuity.” Chisholm v. Georgia, 2 Dall. (S.) 419 (1793); McConnell v. Wilcox, I Seam. (IR.) 344 (1837) as quoted in Leading Fighter v. County of Gregory, 230 N.W.2d 114, 116 (1975).

The people of this country "The United States of America" (state nationals, Californian's) are owed (god given rights)to private property (Land) without owning any rent or service to any superior.  Please review the U.S. Constitution Article 1 Sec 10 Clause 1 which restricts state governments from infringement of god given rights. Review all the elements of the fraud being committed on we the people !!! (the people must invoke their court).  WE ARE HERE TO HELP!!! JUST REACH OUT!!!

U.S. Constitution Article I Section 10  Powers denied States Clause 1 Proscribed Powers

No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

U.S. Constitution Article 1Section 10 clause 1 proscribed powers :https://constitution.congress.gov/browse/article-1/section-10/clause-1/

FRAUD, noun [Latin fraus.]                                                     

Deceit; deception; trick; artifice by which the right or interest of another is injured; a stratagem intended to obtain some undue advantage; an attempt to gain or the obtaining of an advantage over another by imposition or immoral means, particularly deception in contracts, or bargain and sale, either by stating falsehoods, or suppressing truth

Administrative Procedure Act:The Administrative Procedure Act (APA) is a federal act that governs the procedures of administrative law. The APA is codified in 5 U.S.C. §§ 551–559.

Administrative Procedure Act: https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/administrative_procedure_act

Could Administrative Law be Unconstitutional? PLEASE REVIEW :http://wethepeopleshareholders.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Bills-Attainder-What-You-Should-Know.pdf

Administrative law is: 1) an act of a legislative body, 2) describing a group of people or entities, 3) imposing a duty inflicting potential pain or penalty for non-performance, 4) without first consulting a jury for authority. " Repugnant law to constitution is null and void" 

A bill of attainder is: 1) an act of a legislative body, 2) naming a described individual or group of people or entities, 3) imposing pain or penalty, 4) without first consulting a jury for authority.' " U.S. Constitution Art 1 Sec 10 Clause 1 Proscribed powers see above"

LAW NOTE: Administrative law is only applied when you agree to the application; in arraignment; hire an attorney; stop being a court of record; 14th Amendment states deprive; without due process of law; which is common law; court of record; demand in California Constitution Article VI - Judicial  Section 1. or  Constitution for the United States of America, Article VII. both are according to the rules of the common law; courts of record; repugnant to the constitution mean's null and void; unless you agree; hire an attorney; stop being a court of record;stay in a court of record; defend your right's period; any questions please reach out for help!!!  

The Constitution is the supreme law of the land.  Any law that is repugnant to the Constitution is null and voidMarbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. 137 (1803) 

Allodial title constitutes ownership of real property (land, buildings, and fixtures) that is independent of any superior landlord. Allodial title is related to the concept of land held "in allodium", or land ownership by occupancy and defense of the land.

Allodial title:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page

A land patent is a form of letters patent assigning official ownership of a particular tract of land that has gone through various legally-prescribed processes like surveying and documentation, followed by the letter's signing, sealing, and publishing in public records, made by a sovereign entity.

It is the highest evidence of right, title, and interest to a defined area. It is usually granted by a central, federal, or state government to an individual, partnership, trust, or private company.

The first step is to call your County Surveyor. Ask them what is the Township, Range, and Section and to send you the meets and bounds or the Tract No, map of your private property. link to riverside county phone number: https://www.chamberofcommerce.com/united-states/california/riverside/county-government-office/2014334629-riverside-county-surveyor

Then take the Township _____ Range _____ Section_____; search for your land patent link; https://glorecords.blm.gov/default.aspx

land patent:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Land_patent

The Warranty Deed cannot stand against the Land Patent. “A grant of land (Land Patent) is a public law standing on the statue books of the State, and is notice to every subsequent purchaser under any conflicting sale made afterward.” Wineman v. Gastrell, 54 FED 819,2 IS Ap. 581

The “Warranty Deed” is merely a “color of title”. Color of Title means: “That which is a semblance or appearance of title, but not title in fact or in law.” Howth v. Farrar, C.C.A Tex., 94 F.2d 654, 658~ McCoy v. Lowrie, 42 Wash.2d 24, Black’s Law Sixth Ed.

Amendment V: without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

The Land Patent is the only form of perfect title to land available in the United States. Wilcox v. Jackson, 13 PET (U.S.) 498 10 L.Ed. 264

In the history of this county no Land Patent has ever lost an appellate review in the courts. As a matter of fact in Suma Corp. v California the Supreme Court ruled forever that the Land Patent would always win over any other form of title. In that case the land in question was tidewater land and California’s claim was based on California’s constitutional right to all tidewater lands. The patent stood supreme even against California’s Constitution.

law note's In a land purchase at closing table: Remember that so far as mortgages are concerned the proper time to claim your regulation Z exemption is at the closing table. Also remember to bring along ten silver dollars or the equivalent in gold or silver oz's 10 oz pure silver .999 as payment for the property interest you are purchasing -- plus demand land patent "title" (IN YOUR NAME)that you are redeeming. ( FYI DO NOT ACCEPT WARRANTY DEED). 

Remember taxing powers of congress;  U.S. Constitution Article 1 Section 8 clause 1 ;The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

Duties, imposts tax are import & export taxes which do not have a relationship with property tax. Excises tax is a privilege tax, like sales tax, or like a business property tax. Then where is property tax derived from.  Questions to ask your county assessor on your property taxes. 

To:  Chief Deputy Assessor/Your county Assessor

California / County Assessor-County Clerk-Recorder’s Office

This is a request under the Freedom of Information Act, the court request that a photocopy of the following documents be provided: Good afternoon California / county assessor the court has a few questions concerning private property pin # 999000222 in California / County.

1. Please provide the court with a signed copy of the assessment for private property pin # 999000222 California / County year 2021.

2. Please provide the court with a copy of the return filed to create the assessment for private property pin # 999000222 in California / County year 2021. 

3. Please provide the court the statutory procedure that you’re following to assess the private property pin # 999000222 in California /  County year 2021. 

4. The court would like to understand your explanation of how the private property pin # 920072006 has a Situs and Nexus in  California / County. *** 

5. The court would like to understand your specific authority to tax private property pin # 920072006 in California / County just because it exists. *** 

Please mail documents to the address connected to the pin # 999000222

Sincerely,

The California County Assessor's questionnaire document: /wp-content/uploads/go-x/u/4f432a95-b7c6-4f14-8e62-fb34478c456d/assessorquestionar2023_1.docx

These questions will put the county assessor on notice that you are defending your right's. The signed copy of the assessment for the so called property tax year 2021,(singed under the penalty of perjury)  the return for the so called profit your property is earning, and the statutory procedure used to assess your private property.  Any questions please reach out we are here to help!!! 

PERJURY, crim. law. This offence at common law is defined to be a wilful false oath, by one who being lawfully required to depose the truth in any judicial proceedings, swears absolutely in a matter material to the point in question, whether he be believed or not.

(2) in any declaration, certificate, verification, or statement under penalty of perjury as permitted under section 1746 of title 28, United States Code, willfully subscribes as true any material matter which he does not believe to be true; https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/1621

Understanding Tax Rolls

Tax rolls list detailed information about an individual’s property and associated property tax within a specific jurisdiction. Each individual city, county, and state legislates property tax laws as a means of generating revenue. Most tax rolls are created annually as reporting for a taxpayer’s annual tax obligation.

Most local municipalities charge property taxes on all residential*(Not Private Property) and commercial real estate within the jurisdiction. These taxes may also be levied on vehicles and some large assets. This source of revenue is used to fund local infrastructure and public services. Law enforcement, fire service, schools, water, sewage, and road and highway construction projects are some of the most common recipients of property tax roll funds.

Property taxes, in general, are a type of ad valorem excise tax. This is a tax on a specific item with the tax revenue based on a percentage of the property’s value. Jurisdictions can require a property tax on any type of property they choose. They can also adjust the tax rate annually in conjunction with changes made to the annual budget.

Review link;https://www.investopedia.com/terms/t/tax-roll.asp

Property taxes, in general, are a type of ad valorem excise tax*. Law notes review definition excise tax: excise tax*; noun

  1. Any of various taxes levied on the production or sale of certain goods, especially on luxuries, tobacco, alcohol etc.
  2. A tax that is measured by the amount of business done (not on property or income from real estate).

Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.

More at Wordnik

The rights violated here can be defended through Action for trespass or federal Tort claim Act; Review below;

Title 38 CFR § 14.600 - Federal Tort Claims Act—general; (a) Federal Tort Claims Act—overview. The Federal Tort Claims Act (28 U.S.C. 1291, 1346, 1402, 2401, 2402, 2411, 2412, and 2671 through 2680) prescribes a uniform procedure for handling of claims against the United States, for money only, on account of damage to or loss of property, or on account of personal injury or death, caused by the negligent or wrongful act or omission of a Government employee while acting within the scope of his or her office or employment, under circumstances where the United States, if a private person, would be liable in accordance with the law of the place where the act or omission occurred. 

 Title 38 CFR § 14.600 - Federal Tort Claims Act—general; https://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/38/14.600

California Tort Claims Act (Government Code §§ 810-996.6) PDF doc link;https://saclaw.org/wp-content/uploads/claims-against-the-government.pdf

 Action for trespass link;  https://www.1215.org/lawnotes/lawnotes/seminar090110/000-start.htm

The county has no power over you or your property if they do not have an ownership position in the property... Remember, what one creates one controls period!!!

Continued education and training link; https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/533/606/ 

Property Tax tools

1. Common Law Lean on your property

2. Common Law Trust -Method

3. The people do not need to record purchased property with the county. It is not LAW!!! ( Remember all agency's must work through the PERSON; Legal entity your estate Trust created with out your knowledge, Title 26 U.S.C. Sec 7806; is a prohibition on this practice)

Please review continued education and training; /wp-content/uploads/go-x/u/f60e23fa-3f5d-482d-842d-5bfe9350fa11/exempttaxesclaim2023doc-Autosaved.docx

Continued education and training link; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_GRKtijJ7h4

These agency's which are municipal or territorial commercial corporations must work through the "PERSON" legal entity, under the law of contracts.  The caveat to all this is the creation of the legal entity.  Which was created without your authorization, or through fraud.  These agency's do not work under any rule of "LAW" but by presumptions of law.  Which follows in line with Cannon 3228 A Roman Court does not operate according to any true rule of law, but by *presumptions* of the law. Therefore, if presumptions presented by the private Bar Guild are not rebutted they become fact and are therefore said to stand true [Or as "truth in commerce'] (The court would remind you all are rebutted, and shut down due to Title 26 U.S.C. Sec 7806; [This includes the dead legal fiction non-human "PERSON" that corporate¬≠ governments rules and regulations are written for *).

 Any expression of the “PERSON” is TREASON / FRAUD AND BREACH OF FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY on the people of California period!!!

dolus vitiates omnia tangit; fraud vitiates  everything it touches

 

The people rights have been invaded or destroyed through FRAUD!!! 

 THE PEOPLE DEMAND REMEDY!!!!

ubi jus ibi remedium; QUICK REFERENCE [Latin: where there is a right there is a remedy] The principle that where one's right is invaded or destroyed, the law gives a remedy to protect it or damages for its loss. Further, where one's right is denied the law affords the remedy of an action for its enforcement. This right to a remedy therefore includes more than is usually meant in English law by the term “remedy”, as it includes a right of action. Wherever, therefore, a right exists there is also a remedy. Ashby v White (1703) 14 St Tr 695, 92 ER 126 (or rather the classic judgment of Lord Chief Justice Holt in that case) is usually cited to exemplify the maxim. This principle, which has at all times been considered so valuable, gave occasion to the first invention of that form of action called an action on the case. Such actions played a major part in the development of the law of tort.

3.) Why do you need to find an attorney if he works for the court and corporations can not practice Law?

In People v. California Protective Cor., 76 Cal. App. 354 (244 Pac. 1089), it was held that a corporation can neither practice law nor hire lawyers (Attorneys) to carry on the business of practicing law for it not withstanding members forming it are authorized to practice law, and although the Civil Code, § 286 permits formation of corporations for any purpose for which individuals may lawfully associate themselves. Date published: Feb 1, 1926; link : https://casetext.com/case/people-v-california-protective-corp/ (The only authorized party to practice LAW is a Tribunal or Special Master in his court of record; see court of record ; Sovereignty means that the decree of the sovereign makes law, and foreign courts cannot condemn the influences persuading the sovereign to make the decree. Rafael v. Verelst, 2 Wm.Bl. 983, 1055, distinguished.;American Banana Co. v. United Fruit Co., 213 U.S. 347 (1909); link: https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/213/347/ California Government Code Sections 11120 and 54950;  Attorneys and the BAR have no place in a superior court under command of a tribunal or special master see sec (b) Arrangement and classification in title 26 U.S. code; & (a) Cross references; also review personal treaties ; Personal treaties relate exclusively to the "persons" of the contracting sovereigns, ; BLACKS LAW 4th edition Pg. 1674 ; see; Person - defined at 26 U.S.C. §7701(a)(1) only referencing statutory legal fictions:; see; United States – defined at Title 26 U.S.C. Sec 7701 (a) (9); State – defined at Title 26 U.S.C. Sec 7701 (a)(10); The prohibition start date on the attorney's and the BAR guild court Aug 16 1954; (No Legislative Construction, means NO) see  link:https://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title26-section7806&num=0&edition=prelim In this State of California and the united state the practice of LAW is reserved for the contracting sovereigns through their "Person" or in their Court of Record; NO ATTORNEY'S ALLOWED, OR BAR GUILD COURTS (12) PRESUMPTIONS; FYI STAY AWAY FROM ATTORNEYS!!!

Quoted

4   ATTORNEY & CLIENT

His first duty is to the courts and the public, not to the client, and wherever the duties to his client conflict with those he owes as an officer of the court in the administration of justice the former must yield to the latter. 

2-3 ATTORNEY & CLIENT 

One who communicates facts to an attorney expecting professional advice. Clients are also call “wards of the court” in regard to their relationship with their attorney. 

Definition: Ward of the court

Wards of court. Infants and persons of unsound mind placed by the court under the care of a guardian. Dacis’ Committee v. Loney, 290 Ky. 644, 162 S.W.2d 189, 190. Their rights must be guarded jealously. Montgomery v. Erie R. Co., C.C.A.N.J. 97 F2d 289, 292.

Standing in law, standing or locus standi is a condition that a party seeking a legal remedy must show they have, by demonstrating to the court, sufficient connection to and harm from the law or action challenged to support that party's participation in the case. A party has standing in the following situations: • The party is directly subject to an adverse effect by the statute or action in question, and the harm suffered will continue unless the court grants relief in the form of damages or a finding that the law either does not apply to the party or that the law is void or can be nullified. This is called the "something to lose" doctrine, in which the party has standing because they will be directly harmed by the conditions for which they are asking the court for relief.

When you challenge jurisdiction, the only way you can do it is as a “sui juris” and/or “in propria persona”.

 

Sui juris:

Sui: of itself, juris: Law

Law of itself, law of i

A man or woman on this earth with no duties or obligations to anyone or anything.

Henry, John Dow

We have created a document outlining the difference between  Law Vs. Legal  stay in law common i (common law) man/woman we the people. Read the law common i doc  if you have any questions reach out we can work together to claim and protect your rights link:

/wp-content/uploads/go-x/u/58cc8069-d44c-46c4-8e26-72a48a180063/Sui-juris_2.docx

Legal vs. Lawful

Lawful = Good. Whereas Legal = a minefield the stealing of our rights, and freedoms. (if you do not know your Rights, then you don’t have any!)

Law Maxim "Let he who will be deceived.. be deceived"

Law Maxim "He who does not claim his rights..has no rights"

Law Maxim Le contrat fait la loi. "The contract makes the law."

Law Maxim Lex semper dabit remedium. "The law always gives a remedy." 3Bouv. Inst. n. 2411.

Legal versus Lawful! What does that mean? You may ask, are they not one, and the same? If something is lawful, does it not follow that it is also legal? The answer is most definitely NO!

SUI JURIS. One who has all the rights to which a freemen is entitled; one who is not under the power of another, as a slave, a minor, and the like.

2. To make a valid contract, a person must, in general, be sui juris. Every one of full age is presumed to be sui juris. Story on Ag. p. 10.

In propria persona / in prowpriya persowna/. In one’s own proper person. It was formerly a rule in pleading that pleas to the jurisdiction of the court must be plead in propria persona, because if pleaded by attorney they admit the jurisdiction, as an attorney is an officer of the court, and he is presumed to plead after having obtained leave, which admits the jurisdiction. 

COMMON LAW. That which derives its force and authority from the universal consent and immemorial practice of the people. See Law, common.

LAW, COMMON. The common law is that which derives its force and authority from the universal consent and immemorial practice of the people.   Common Law fundamentals enshrined in the Constitution link; https://www.bitchute.com/video/1oD6CGjAcYzZ/ 

CONFIRMATIO CARTARUM [26]
October 10, 1297

(3) and that our justices, sheriffs, mayors, and other ministers, which under us have the laws of our land to guide, shall allow the said charters pleaded before them in judgement in all their points, that is to wit, the Great Charter as the common law[*] and the Charter of the forest, for the wealth of our realm.

“The United States Supreme Court declares that the “Sovereignty” remains with the “people” and resides with the “people”…Yick Wo vs. Hopkins and Woo Lee Hopkins (118 US 356). 

In law and legal are two different systems: 

In law; created by GOD also created man & woman: Law common to i : Lawful

Legal; Created by man & woman; the people, we the people is referencing above what was created by man&woman; Legal

Man & Woman created Government, legal societies, courts, judges, Titles: citizen, national, employee, parent, farmer, teacher, doctor, ets…..

STAY  IN COMMON LAW TO i; in law: man & woman, Or when in legal: one of, we the people!!! A people are powerful review Common law STRAWMAN - THE BEST COMMON LAW DOCUMENTARY; https://www.bitchute.com/video/GjfLdTpxMAlc/

Continued education & training Lawful V. Legal

LAW. Law is generally divided into four principle classes, namely; Natural law, the law of nations, public law, and private or civil law.

 When considered in relation to its origin, it is statute law or common law. 

When examined as to its different systems it is divided into civil law, common law, canon law.

When applied to objects, it is civil, criminal, or penal. 

It is also divided into natural law and positive law.

Into written law, lex scripta; and unwritten law, lex non scripta

Into law merchant, martial law, municipal law, and foreign law.

When considered as to their duration, laws are immutable and arbitrary or positive; when as their effect, they are prospective and retrospective. 

These will be separately considered.

legal. 1  of or relating to law  She has many legal problems.   2 a; deriving authority from or founded on law : DE JURE  a legal government b; having a formal status derived from law often without a basis in actual fact : TITULAR a corporation is a legal but not a real person c; established by law especially : STATUTORY the legal test of mental capacity—K. C. Masteller

3 ; conforming to or permitted by law or established rules. The referee said it was a legal play. Fishing in this lake is legal.

4;  recognized or made effective by a court of law as distinguished from a court of equity

5; of, relating to, or having the characteristics of the profession of law or of one of its members a bottle … that some legal friend had sent him—J. G. Cozzens

6;  created by the constructions of the law. A legal fiction is something assumed in law to be a fact regardless of the truth of that assumption.

Continued education on Legal; LEGAL. That which is according to law. It is used in opposition to equitable, as the legal estate is, in the trustee, the equitable estate in the cestui que trust. Vide Powell on Mortg. Index, h. t.

2. The party who has the legal title, has alone the right to seek a remedy for a wrong to his estate, in a court of law, though he may have no beneficial interest in it. The equitable owner, is he who has not the legal estate, but is entitled to the beneficial interest.

3. The person who holds the legal estate for the benefit of another, is called a trustee; he who has the beneficiary interest and does not hold the legal title, is called the beneficiary, or more technically, the cestui que trust.

4. When the trustee has a claim, he must enforce his right in a court of equity, for he cannot sue any one at law, in his own name; 1 East, 497; 8 T. R. 332; 1 Saund. 158, n. 1; 2 Bing. 20; still less can he in such court sue his own trustee. 1 East, 497.

Be advised Title 26 U.S.C. Sec 7806; locks in the agent / trustee; and the principal / beneficiary of the estate Trust;

Expressio unius est exclusio alterius. The expression of one thing is the exclusion of another.

LEGAL                                                                                  LAW

                              SYSTEM OPERATED BUY LEGAL SOCIETY                LAWS PERTAIN  TO NATURAL ORDER OF THINGS                                                  

                                                  EXCLUSIVE TO ITS MEMBERS                                                    GRAVITY                                                                    


                                   USES STATUTES                                                           DO ON TO OTHERS                          

         MEMBERS USE FORCE AND TRICKERY TO ENTRAP            MAXIMS AND  RULES THAT DEVELOPED IN COMMON LAW COURTS                                                    

THE MIRROR TEST 

Statutes of Westminster; The First 1275
Imperial Act

For the maintaining of Peace and Justice

First the King willeth and commandeth,

 that the peace of Holy Church and of the land,

 be well kept and maintained in all points, 

and that common right be done to all, 

as well poor as rich,

 without respect of persons. LINK: https://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/imperial/1275/0001/latest/whole.html

COURT; Courts of record cannot be deprived of their jurisdiction except by express negative words.

Courts of equity are not, in general, courts of record. Their decrees touch the person, not lands. or goods. 

Deuteronomy 1:17; Ye shall not respect persons in judgment; ye shall hear the small and the great alike; ye shall not be afraid of the face of man; for the judgment is God's:

PROVERBS 24:23 KJ21 These sayings also belong to the wise: It is not good to have respect of persons in judgment.

Deuteronomy 16:19; Thou shalt not wrest judgment; thou shalt not respect persons, neither take a gift; for a gift doth blind the eyes of the wise, and pervert the words of the righteous.

TO PERSONATE, crim. law. The act of assuming the character of another without lawful authority, and, in such character, doing something to his prejudice, or to the prejudice of another, without his will or consent

2. The bare fact of personating another for the purpose of fraud, is no more than a cheat or misdemeanor at common law, and punishable as such. 2 East, P. C. 1010; 2 Russ. on Cr. 479.

3. By the act of congress of the 30th April, 1790, s. 15, 1 Story's Laws U. S. 86, it is enacted, that " if any person shall acknowledge, or procure to be acknowledged in any court of the United States, any recognizance, bail or judgment, in the name or names of any other person or persons not privy or consenting to the same, every such person or persons, on conviction thereof, shall be fined not exceeding five thousand dollars, or be imprisoned not exceeding seven years, and whipped not exceeding thirty-nine stripes, Provided nevertheless. that this act shall not extend to the acknowledgment of any judgment or judgments by any attorney or attorneys, duly admitted, for any person or persons against whom any such judgment or judgments shall be bad or given." Vide, generally, 2 John. Cas. 293; 16 Vin. Ab. 336; Com. Dig. Action on the case for a deceit, A 3.

IN SUMMARY 

DO NOT SIGN ANYTHING 

DO NOT CONSENT

UNTIL WE HAVE  OBTAINED LAWFUL  ADVICE

REMEMBER THEY WILL TRY TO TRICK US  INTO GETTING LEGAL ADVISE 

CONTINUED EDUCATION & TRAINING LINK: https://www.bitchute.com/video/oTUXldarb0fJ/

4.) Why do we go to a bank and apply for credit, when banks don't have money and can't lend credit?

Continued education on USUARY & lending  Link: https://www.bitchute.com/video/dDvLWspBWkLh/

"It is not within those statutory powers for a national bank, even though solvent, to lend its credit to another in any of the various ways in which that might be done." Federal Intermediate Credit Bank v. L 'Herrison, 33 F 2d 841, 842 (1929).

"A national bank has no power to lend its credit to any person or corporation . . . Bowen v. Needles Nat. Bank, 94 F 925 36 CCA 553, certiorari denied in 20 S.Ct 1024, 176 US 682, 44 LED 637.

“A bank may not lend its credit to another even though such a transaction turns out to have been of benefit to the bank, and in support of this a list of cases might be cited, which-would look like a catalog of ships.” [Emphasis added] Norton Grocery Co. v. Peoples Nat. Bank, 144 SE 505. 151 Va 195.

continued education link: department of backing and finance ; Surety Bonds; link:https://dbf.georgia.gov/money-service-businesses/surety-bonds

("Persons" of the contracting sovereign lending/BANKER) House Joint Resolution 192 – PUBLIC LAW 73-10

"To assure uniform value to the coins and currencies of the Unites States,

'obligation' means any obligation (including every obligation of and to the United States, excepting currency) payable in money of the United States;and the term 'coin or currency' means coin or currency of the United States, including Federal Reserve notes and circulating notes of Federal Reserve banks and national banking associations.

The connection from the so called banker/lender and the customer (we the people) for all banking aka lending are the governmental entity and the legal entity "Person" of the contracting sovereigns. 

Personal treaties relate exclusively to the "persons" of the "contracting sovereigns", (We the People) such as family alliances, and treaties guaranteeing the throne to a particular sovereign and his family.

Person - defined at Title 26 U.S.C. §7701(a)(1) only referencing statutory legal fictions: (Customer & his Vessel: Estate Trust)

governmental entity - (4) the term “governmental entity” means a department or agency of the United States or any State or political subdivision thereof: (Banker, Judge, magistrate, loan officer, mortgage officer, agent, or agency Representative, & their Governmental entity, operating in the United States, and any state of the united states under authority of the Public Law 73-10) 

Every obligation, heretofore or hereafter incurred, whether or not any such provision is contained therein or made with respect thereto, shall be discharged upon payment, dollar for dollar, in any coin or currency which at time of payment is legal tender for public and private debts.  

"All coins and currencies of the United Stated (including Federal Reserve notes and circulating notes of the Federal Reserve banks and national banking associations) heretofore or hereafter coined or issued, shall be legal tender for all debts, public and private, public charges, taxes, duties, and dues, except that gold coins, when below the standard weight and limit of tolerance provided by law for the single piece, shall be legal tender only at valuation in proportion to their actual weight.'

This means all obligations of the United States created through the "person" and the "governmental entity" through agents & "Persons" of the "contracting sovereigns" are funded through the estate trust of the people through Public Law 73-10 this is legal & lawful any repayment of any security estate trust funding "obligation" which has been satisfied, or retired is prohibited due to Sec 7806 of title 26 U.S.C. (a) Cross references & (b) Arrangement and classification:  No inference, implication, or presumption of "legislative construction" shall be drawn or made by reason) Which means no financial contract can exist legally. Also this operation Verbally or reduced down to the written form is illegal & unlawful.

Continued education link: https://satcomm911.com/PDFS/LAW%20-%20House%20Joint%20Resolution%20192.pdf

BANK PRACTICES IN SIMPLE LANGUAGE

loan agreement : BANK FRAUD

Signed promissory note; The loan agreement you signed is actually a 

promissory note = CASH

Bills of exchange Act /stamp and check duties act

Where is the MONEY: The reason the bank balance sheet will always appear in order to an auditor is because the bank employs a type of arms length transaction. 

To do this, the amount is transferred from the bank escrow account to your solicitors/agent escrow account/ lawyers trust account.

HOWEVER the money created by your signature is rightfully yours and should be credited to YOU (the secured party creditor/Tribunal-principal-beneficiary)

QUESTIONS TO ASK THE LENDER/BANK!!!

 

1. DID YOU ADVERTISE THE BANK ISSUED LOANS?

2. DO YOU HOLD DEPOSITORS FUNDS?

3. DID THE BANK LEND ANYTHING OF SUBSTANCE?

4. DO YOU LEND LEGAL TENDER OR OTHER DEPOSITORS FUNDS?

5. WHO HOLD THE ORIGINAL LOAN AGREEMENT THAT I SIGNED?

6. DID THIS LOAN GIVE YOU POWER OF ATTORNEY? 

7. IS MY HOUSE SECURITY FOR THE MORTGAGE?

8. WAS THE LOAN/NOTE LODGED AS A SECURITY WITH THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE DEPOSITOR TRUST ?

9. WHO INSTRUCTED THE LENDER TO DRAW UP A MORTGAGE? AND WHY?

10. AFTER YOU CALLED ME AND TOLD ME MY LOAN WAS APPROVED WHY DID I SIGN A MORTGAGE AGREEMENT?

SECURITY OVER YOUR LOAN

WHAT DO THE BANKS USE AS SECURITY?

GOVERNMENTS AND BANKS CAN ONLY DEAL THROUGH THE LEGAL FICTIONS: An “entity” refers to a “person” or organization possessing separate and distinct legal rights, such as an individual, partnership, or corporation. An entity can, among other things, own property, engage in business, enter into contracts, pay taxes, sue and be sued. An entity is capable of operating legally, suing and making decisions through “agents”, e.g. a corporation, a state, or an association: (1) Person - defined at 26 USC §7701(a)(1) only referencing statutory legal fictions: https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/26/7701 

(2 ) U.S. person - defined at 26 USC §7701(a) (30) only referencing statutory legal fictions: https://www.law.cornell.edu/definitions/uscode.php?width=840&height=800&iframe=true&def_id=26-USC-1081524982-1199109669&term_occur=999&term_src=title:26:subtitle:F:chapter:79:section:7701

(3) Taxpayer - defined at 26 USC §7701(a) (14) references any 'person' subject to:https://www.law.cornell.edu/definitions/uscode.php?height=800&def_id=26-USC-261978486-1199109727&term_occur=999&term_src=title:26:subtitle:F:chapter:79:section:7701

 United States citizen – defined at Title 26 USC Sec7701 (a) (30) (A); a citizen or resident of the United States,

United States – defined at Title 26 USC Sec 7701 (a) (9); the term “United States” when used in a geographical sense includes only the States and the District of Columbia.

State – defined at Title 26 USC Sec 7701 (a)(10); The term “State” shall be construed to include the District of Columbia, where such construction is necessary to carry out provisions of this title.

PERSON: LEGAL ENTITY ESTATE TRUST( Remember TITLE 26 U.S.C. SEC 7806 is a prohibition on the PERSON legal entity Stay in your court of record; Tribunal-Principal-Beneficiary we the people!!! ) 

(a) Cross references

The cross references in this title to other portions of the title, or other provisions of law, where the word "see" is used, are made only for convenience, and shall be given no legal effect.

(b) Arrangement and classification

No inference, implication, or presumption of legislative construction shall be drawn or made by reason of the location or grouping of any particular section or provision or portion of this title, nor shall any table of contents, table of cross references, or similar outline, analysis, or descriptive matter relating to the contents of this title be given any legal effect. The preceding sentence also applies to the sidenotes and ancillary tables contained in the various prints of this Act before its enactment into law.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 917 .)

POWER OF ATTORNEY

THE WILLS ACT 1873 EXPLAINS WHAT IS HELD IN TRUST FOR US AND HOW TO ACCESS IT VIA YOUR WILL AND POWER OF ATTORNEY 

READ THE LOAN AGREEMENT YOU WILL SEE IT GAVE THEM POWER OF ATTORNEY 

WE HAVE A CANCELLATION OF ALL POWERS OF ATTORNEY DOC COMING: LINK; 

THE WILLS ACT 1837

3. ALL PROPERTY MAY BE DISPOSED OF BY WILL IT SHALL BE LAWFUL FOR EVERY PERSON TO DEVISE,BEQUEATH, OR DISPOSE OF, BY HIS WILL EXECUTED IN MANNER HEREIN REQUIRED.....

WILLS ACT 1837 LINK; https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/Will4and1Vict/7/26/contents

All property may be disposed of by will; Contingent Interests; Rights of Entry; and property acquired after the execution of the will.

It shall be lawful for every person to devise, bequeath, or dispose of, by his will executed in manner herein-after required, all real estate and all personal estate which he shall be entitled to, either at law or in equity, at the time of his death, and which, if not so devised, bequeathed, or disposed of, would devolve . . . F1 upon his executor or administrator; and the power hereby given shall extend . . . F1 to all contingent, executory or other future interests in any real or personal estate, whether the testator may or may not be ascertained as the person or one of the persons in whom the same respectively may become vested, and whether he may be entitled thereto under the instrument by which the same respectively were created, or under any disposition thereof by deed or will; and also to all rights of entry for conditions broken, and other rights of entry; and also to such of the same estates, interests, and rights respectively, and other real and personal estate, as the testator may be entitled to at the time of his death, notwithstanding that he may become entitled to the same subsequently to the execution of his will.

WHAT DO YOU/THEY  OWN :  PAPER 

INSURANCE/ DOUBLE DIPPING 

ITS UP TO YOU/BE A SLAVE OR TAKE CONTROL THROUGH YOUR : TRIBUNAL-PRINCIPAL-BENEFICIARY ESTATE TRUST

IN THE END ASK YOUR BANK MANAGER THIS FINAL QUESTION;

ON THE DAY I RECEIVED MY LOAN DID YOUR BOOKS BALANCE?  

REVIEW THE CONTINUED EDUCATION AND TRAINING LINK: https://www.bitchute.com/video/eCudoajxGZWY/

BILL OF EXCHANGE

Training and education on bills of exchange link: https://www.bitchute.com/video/v5AilS4udyPQ/

MONEY MONEY MONEY

MONEY. Gold, silver, and some other less precious metals, in the progress of civilization and commerce, have become the common standards of value; in order to avoid the delay and inconvenience of regulating their weight and quality whenever passed, the governments of the civilized world have caused them to be manufactured in certain portions, and marked with a Stamp which attests their value; this is called money. 1 Inst. 207; 1 Hale's Hist. 188; 1 Pardess. n. 22; Dom. Lois civ. liv. prel. t. 3, s. 2, n. 6.

2. For many purposes, bank notes; (q. v.) 1 Y. & J, 380; 3 Mass. 405; 14 Mass. 122; 2 N. H. Rep. 333; 17 Mass. 560; 7 Cowen, 662; 4 Pick. 74; Bravt. 24; a check; 4 Bing. 179; S. C. 13 E. C. L. R. 295; and negotiable notes; 3 Mass. 405; will be so considered. To support a count for money had and received, the receipt by the defendant of bank notes, promissory notes: 3 Mass. 405; 3 Shepl. 285; 9 Pick. 93; John. 132; credit in account, in the books of a third person; 3 Campb. 199; or any chattel, is sufficient; 4 Pick. 71; 17 Mass. 560; and will be treated as money. See 7 Wend. 311; 8 Wend. 641; 7 S. & R. 246; 8 T. R. 687; 3 B. & P. 559; 1 Y. & J. 380.

Currency

25Issue of currency by Bank (1) The Bank shall have the sole right to issue bank notes and coins in New Zealand.

(2)The Bank shall determine the denominations, form, design, content, weight, and composition of its bank notes and coins.

(3)Every bank note issued by the Bank before the commencement of this Act, and every coin issued by the Minister under the Decimal Currency Act 1964 or under the Coinage Act 1933 by virtue of the Decimal Currency Act 1964, which is legal tender at the commencement of this Act shall be deemed for all purposes to have been made or issued under this Act.

Compare: 1964 No 27 s 10; 1964 No 134 s 20(1), (3)

Legal tender (1) Every bank note issued, or deemed to be issued, under this Act shall be a legal tender for the amount expressed in the note.

(2) A tender of payment of money, to the extent that it is made in coins issued, or deemed to be issued, under this Act, shall be a legal tender,—

(a)in the case of coins of a denomination of $10 or more, for the payment of any amount:

(b)in the case of coins of a denomination of $1 or more but less than $10, for the payment of any amount not exceeding $100:

(c)in the case of coins of the denomination of 5 cents or more, but less than $1, for the payment of an amount not exceeding $5:

(d)in the case of any coins of the denomination of less than 5 cents, for the payment of an amount not exceeding 20 cents.

(3)The references to coins and bank notes in subsections (1) and (2) do not include references to coins and bank notes that have been called in.

Compare: 1964 No 27 s 14; 1964 No 134 s 20(2)

CURRENCY. The money which passes, at a fixed value, from hand to hand; money which is authorized by law.

2. By art. 1, s. 8, the Constitution of the United States authorizes congress "to coin money, and to regulate the value thereof." Changes in the currency ought not to be made but for the most urgent reason, as they unsettle commerce, both at home and abroad. Suppose Peter contracts to pay Paul one thousand dollars in six months - the dollar of a certain fineness of silver, weighing one hundred and twelve and a half grains - and afterwards, before the money becomes due, the value of the dollar is changed, and it weighs now but fifty-six and a quarter grains; will one thousand of the new dollars pay the old debt? Different opinion may be entertained, but it seems that such payment would be complete; because, 1. The creditor is bound to receive the public currency; and, 2. He is bound to receive it at its legal value. 6 Duverg. n. 174.

Forgery and counterfeiting

Heading: inserted, on 1 October 2003, by section 15 of the Crimes Amendment Act 2003 (2003 No 39).

255 Interpretation;                For the purposes of this section and sections 256 and 263,—

bank note means any negotiable instrument used or intended for use as currency and issued by the Reserve Bank of New Zealand, or by any bank in any country other than New Zealand, or by the Government of any such country, or by any other authority authorised by law to issue notes.

PAYMENT, contracts. That which is given to execute what has been promised; or it is the fulfilment of a promise. Solvere dicimus cum quis fecit, quod facere promisit. But though this is the general acceptation of the word, yet by payment is understood, every way by which the creditor is satisfied or ought to be, and the debtor, liberated for example, an accord and satisfaction will operate as a payment. If I owe you a sum of money, for the security of which I give you a mortgage, and afterwards you consent to receive in payment a tract of land, from the moment the sale is complete, the first obligation, with all its accessories, is extinct, although you should be afterwards evicted of the property sold. 7 Toull. n. 46 2 Mart. Lo. Rep. N. S. 144; S. C. 2 Harr. Cond. Lo. R. 621, 624.

Interpretation

In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,—money, in relation to any wages, means any New Zealand coin or New Zealand banknotes, or combination of both, the tender of which in respect of the payment of those wages is legal tender. specified cheque, in relation to the payment of wages to any worker, means a cheque payable to, or to the order of, that worker
 

legal tender noun

  1. Currency, such as coin and paper money, declared by law to be valid and sufficient for the payment of debts.
  2. Any form of currency that by law cannot be refused as payment to extinguish a debt equal to the amount offered.
  3. Something that can be used as an official medium of payment.

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 5th Edition.

More at Wordnik

PLEASE NOTE;  LEGAL TENDER NOT LAWFUL TENDER

Whenever we receive a bill or a demand they always ask for payment. 

However they never ask for sum certain and only ever ask for this sign $ and add some figures. 

A some certain is one dollar 

Suggestion just keep asking them questions (in writing)

What is payment?

How do you want us to pay?

What is the difference between lawful tender and legal tender ? 

DON'T GET CAUGHT OUT NEVER EVER MENTION THE WORD DOLLAR !!!

WHAT ARE YOU AFTER ; SEASHELL'S ROCK'S NUT'S 

Training and education on the meaning of money link: https://www.bitchute.com/video/BwHzeHAqo3Iw/

"Neither, as included in its powers not incidental to them, is it a part of a bank's business to lend its credit. If a bank could lend its credit as well as its money, it might, if it received compensation and was careful to put its name only to solid paper, make a great deal more than any lawful interest on its money would amount to. If not careful, the power would be the mother of panics . . . Indeed, lending credit is the exact opposite of lending money, which is the real business of a bank, for while the latter creates a liability in favor of the bank, the former gives rise to a liability of the bank to another. I Morse. Banks and Banking 5th Ed. Sec 65; Magee, Banks and Banking, 3rd Ed. Sec 248." American Express Co. v. Citizens State Bank, 194 NW 429.

: "Any false representation of material facts made with knowledge of falsity and with intent that it shall be acted on by another in entering into contract, and which is so acted upon, constitutes 'fraud,' and entitles party deceived to avoid contract or recover damages." Barnsdall Refining Corn. v. Birnam Wood Oil Co. 92 F 26 817.

: "Any conduct capable of being turned into a statement of fact is representation. There is no distinction between misrepresentations effected by words and misrepresentations effected by other acts." Leonard v. Springer 197 Ill 532. 64 NE 301.

“The contract is void if it is only in part connected with the illegal transaction and the promise single or entire.” Guardian Agency v. Guardian Mut. Savings Bank, 227 Wis 550, 279 NW 83. 

“If any part of the consideration for a promise be illegal, or if there are several considerations for an unseverable promise one of which is illegal, the promise, whether written or oral, is wholly void, as it is impossible to say what part or which one of the considerations induced the promise.” Menominee River Co. v. Augustus Spies L & C Co., 147 Wis 559. 572; 132 NW 1122.

JEROME DALY – THE MAHONEY CREDIT RIVER DECISION; A Minnesota Trial Court’s decision holding the Federal Reserve Act unconstitutional and VOID; holding the National Banking Act unconstitutional and VOID; declaring a mortgage acquired by the First National Bank of Montgomery, Minnesota in the regular course of its business, along with the foreclosure and the sheriff’s sale, to be VOID. : https://4closurefraud.org/2009/12/02/jerome-daly-the-mahoney-credit-river-decision/

The Credit River Decision An honest judge rules honestly on money matters: https://www.freedomforallseasons.org/unFederalunReserve/2010-01-23%20Credit%20River%20Decision%20First%20National%20Bank%20of%20Montgomery%20vs_%20Jerome%20Daly.htm

Regulation Z; Title 12 USC 95 (a) 12 USC 95: Emergency limitations and restrictions on business of members of Federal Reserve System; designation of legal holiday for national banking associations; exceptions; "State" definedText contains those laws in effect on June 2, 2023: https://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title12-section95&num=0&edition=prelim

Regulation Z Title 12 CFR § 226.1 - Authority, purpose, coverage, organization, enforcement, and liability: https://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/12/226.1

Continue; Regulation Z;Title 12 USC  2601, 2603-2605, 2607,2609, 2617, 3353,5511, 5532,5581; 12 USC 2601: Congressional findings and purpose Text contains those laws in effect on June 2, 2023 :https://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?hl=false&edition=prelim&req=granuleid%3AUSC-prelim-title12-section2601&num=0&saved=%7CKHRpdGxlOjEyIHNlY3Rpb246MjYwMSBlZGl0aW9uOnByZWxpbSk%3D%7C%7C%7C0%7Cfalse%7Cprelim

Continue Regulation Z; Title 15 USC 1601 15 USC 1601: Congressional findings and declaration of purpose Text contains those laws in effect on January 7, 2011:https://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-2010-title15-section1601&num=0&edition=2010

Continuation Regulation Z; 15 U.S. Code Chapter 41 - CONSUMER CREDIT PROTECTION :https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/15/chapter-41

Continued Regulation M leasing: https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2021/11/30/2021-25909/consumer-leasing-regulation-m

Regulation Z link:https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2021/11/30/2021-25910/truth-in-lending-regulation-z

The people must declare their birthright political status as an American, a member of the general public, owed all freedoms, rights, and prerogatives ---- including the unencumbered ownership of your body, mind, soul, land, house, soil, business, occupation, and all other material and immaterial property interests, including Regulation Z exemptions and remedies. 

Regulation Z exemptions and remedies: Remember that so far as mortgages are concerned the proper time to claim your regulation Z exemption is at the closing table. Also remember to bring along ten silver dollars or the equivalent in gold or silver oz's 10 oz pure silver .999 as payment for the property interest you are purchasing -- plus demand land patent IN YOUR NAME; 

BLOCKING IRS CODE USED AT CLOSING TABLE; ***TITLE 26 IRS CODE 1091; 26 USC 1091: Loss from wash sales of stock or securities*** Text contains those laws in effect on June 2, 2023: https://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title26-section1091&num=0&edition=prelim (any loss of a securities is not the buyers/private banker/american national/consumer, responsibility its the originator's or bank or so called lending facility FYI)

TITLE 26 SEC 408; 26 USC 408: Individual retirement accountsText contains those laws in effect on January 4, 1995: https://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=Fair+Credit+Reporting+Act&f=treesort&num=46 

TITLE 26 SEC 61; 26 U.S. Code § 61 - Gross income defined: https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/26/61

TITLE 26 SEC 108; 26 U.S. Code § 108 - Income from discharge of indebtedness: https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/26/108

TITLE 26 SEC 751;26 USC 751: Unrealized receivables and inventory items Text contains those laws in effect on June 2, 2023; https://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=(title:26%20section:751%20edition:prelim)

REMEMBER OR REMIND THEM AT THE CLOSING TABLE TITLE 26 IRS CODE SEC 7806: 26 U.S. Code § 7806 - Construction of title;

a)Cross references

The cross references in this title to other portions of the title, or other provisions of law, where the word “see” is used, are made only for convenience, and shall be given no legal effect.

(b)Arrangement and classification

No inference, implication, or presumption of legislative construction shall be drawn or made by reason of the location or grouping of any particular section or provision or portion of this title, nor shall any table of contents, table of cross references, or similar outline, analysis, or descriptive matter relating to the contents of this title be given any legal effect. The preceding sentence also applies to the sidenotes and ancillary tables contained in the various prints of this Act before its enactment into law.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 917.)26 U.S. Code § 7806 - Construction of title; https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/26/7806

Continued education (just for review) on applicability; Bill of exchange;  Primary tabs

A bill of exchange, a short-term negotiable instrument, is a signed, unconditional, written order binding one party to pay a fixed sum of money to another party on demand or at a predetermined date. A bill of exchange is sometimes called draft or draught, but draft usually applies to domestic transactions only. The term bill of exchange may also be applied broadly to other instruments of foreign exchange.

For example, a check is a type of bill of exchange.

[Last updated in February of 2022 by the Wex Definitions Team]

Continued education banking; 15 U.S. Code Subchapter V - DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES;https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/15/chapter-41/subchapter-V

Continued education banking; Federal Rules of Evidence 1. Rule 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations ; https://www.law.cornell.edu/rules/fre/rule_408

Continued education banking; LII  1. Uniform Commercial Code  2. § 3-604. DISCHARGE BY CANCELLATION OR RENUNCIATION.

Primary tabs

(a) A person entitled to enforce an instrument, with or without consideration, may discharge the obligation of a party to pay the instrument (i) by an intentional voluntary act, such as surrender of the instrument to the party, destruction, mutilation, or cancellation of the instrument, cancellation or striking out of the party's signature, or the addition of words to the instrument indicating discharge, or (ii) by agreeing not to sue or otherwise renouncing rights against the party by a signed record.

(b) Cancellation or striking out of an indorsement pursuant to subsection (a) does not affect the status and rights of a party derived from the indorsement.

(c) As used in this section, "signed," with respect to a record that is not a writing, includes the attachment to or logical association with the record of an electronic symbol, sound, or process to or with the record with the present intent to adopt or accept the record.

‹ § 3-603. TENDER OF PAYMENT. up § 3-605. DISCHARGE OF SECONDARY OBLIGORS. ›

§ 3-604. DISCHARGE BY CANCELLATION OR RENUNCIATION. ; https://www.law.cornell.edu/ucc/3/3-604

Continued education banking; U. C.C.  § 3-302. HOLDER IN DUE COURSE.   Primary tabs

(a) Subject to subsection (c) and Section 3-106(d),"holder in due course" means the holder of an instrument if:

(1) the instrument when issued or negotiated to the holder does not bear such apparent evidence of forgery or alteration or is not otherwise so irregular or incomplete as to call into question its authenticity; and

(2) the holder took the instrument (i) for value, (ii) in good faith, (iii) without notice that the instrument is overdue or has been dishonored or that there is an uncured default with respect to payment of another instrument issued as part of the same series, (iv) without notice that the instrument contains an unauthorized signature or has been altered, (v) without notice of any claim to the instrument described in Section 3-306, and (vi) without notice that any party has a defense or claim in recoupment described in Section 3-305(a).

 U.C.C.  § 3-302. HOLDER IN DUE COURSE. ; https://www.law.cornell.edu/ucc/3/3-302#holderinduecourse

Continued education banking U.C.C. general provisions; https://www.law.cornell.edu/ucc 

Continued education GAAP Generally Accepted Accounting Practice ; https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/gaap

Continued education background information on banking loan's and mortgages fraud review: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gzoQS5iA3Is

Continued education background information on banking fraud; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZVArT1TBJBQ 

Continued education background information on banking fraud; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_doYllBk5No

Continued education background information on Ten thousand paper cuts: https://www.usa-the-republic.com/jurisprudentia/foreclosures/How_I_Lawfully_Claimed_3_Houses_Free_and_Clear.pdf

Continued education banking credit burial document: /wp-content/uploads/go-x/u/fab75d22-8234-4150-b102-6130827e5dfe/bankcreditburaldco2023.rtf

Continued education banking first letter wet ink signature on promissory note document; /wp-content/uploads/go-x/u/419d549c-4b2f-4b18-9d59-1c0a65567a91/banking1stletterPromissorynotewetink.rtf   

Continued education banking second letter wet ink signature on promissory note document; /wp-content/uploads/go-x/u/325573a5-1633-4437-9a8f-0e7baf49a345/secondrequestproofofclaimpromissarynote2023.docx

Continued education modification deed of trust reformation seeks to correct an inaccuracy caused by mistake or fraud, law;https://www.justia.com/probate/probate-litigation/reformation-and-modification-of-trusts/

Continued education MODIFICATION AND SUPPLEMENT TO DEED OF TRUST ; https://www.fidelityedesk.com/Uploads/22/88/22288/gallery/Modification_and_Supplement_To_Deed_of_TrustLIVE.pdf

Continued education SUBSTITUTION OF TRUSTEE document: https://www.fidelityedesk.com/Uploads/21/06/12106/Gallery/CA%20FORMS%20&%20DOCS%202016/Substitution_Of_Trustee.pdf

Continued education revocation of power of attorney doc; https://eforms.com/download/2015/10/California-Power-of-Attorney-Revocation-Form.pdf

Continued education banking civil case filling petition document; /wp-content/uploads/go-x/u/e2177397-07af-4f74-82c9-29c6569b67d4/PETITIONFORVERIFICATIONOFDEBTELSERELESEOFCLAIM2023_3.rtf

Continued education banking cease and desist notice order document; /wp-content/uploads/go-x/u/d51b533f-bbe1-4a37-9834-d136b5440100/Noticeofdefaultceaseanddesist2023.docx

Continued education private land deed of full reconveyance; https://www.rivcoacr.org/media/Forms/Recorder/Recorder_Sample_Documents/Full%20Reconveyance.pdf

Continued education defense on your property interest or defendants or from bank; Preservation of interest;  2009 California Civil Code - Section 880.310-880.370 :: Article 3. Preservation Of Interests CIVIL CODE SECTION 880.310-880.370;https://law.justia.com/codes/california/2009/civ/880.310-880.370.html


Continued education California riverside county sample documents link; https://www.rivcoacr.org/RecorderSampleDocuments

CONTINUED EDUCATION TRUTH IN LENDING ACT; The Truth in Lending Act (TILA) is a consumer protection law enacted in 1968 in response to exceedlingy predatory loan practices. Prior to the TILA, lenders would use a variety of terminology and forms of lending that manipulated uninformed borrowers. The TILA changed this by requiring a uniform system of disclosures and terminology to be used for lending like credit cards or mortgages. Creditors were required to disclose details like the annual percentage rate and repayments details in a clear way to borrowers or else the borrower may be able to rescind the debt. TILA also limits the amount of late fees creditors can charge. Overall, the TILA since its signing has been updated to respond to changing lending practices to ensure borrowers clearly understand the terms and conditions they agree to. https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/truth_in_lending_act_%28tila%29

Remember the promissory note, and the mortgage are separated and bifurcated. The insurance company(AIG, etc...) on the loan, is insuring an unsecured mortgage; bifurcate;  in the legal sense, is the dividing of a case into two stages for trial. A common division is to determine liability or guilt in the first stage and damages or punishment in the second. For example, in criminal proceedings, the guilt or innocence of the defendant is determined in one stage, and the penalty is determined in the other. In personal injury cases, the issues of liability and damages are also heard separately. See: bifurcated trial.:;;https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/bifurcate   

The tools need to combat the bank are the Secularization audit which will lead to the trust; where the note was sold. The secularization audit follows the paper trail from closings until it enters the trust; and Bloomberg financial report; pulls out all the information about the trust; together these tool's will provide the affidavit of truth you need in a court of record; 

Why Banks Hate Securitization Audits:The short answer is because Securitization Audits blatantly expose their fraud… the fraud they are committing by trying to foreclose on securitized mortgages. A securitized mortgage is one that has been pooled together with a bunch of others and sold to investors. Over 85% of loans in the last 10 years have been securitized. And once a mortgage has been securitized, the bank no longer holds the title to the loan. And when they do not hold title, they cannot legally foreclose. And it’s the Securitization Audit process that exposes and proves this fraud.

The resulting documentation takes the bank off its “high horse” and exposes their misconduct in front of a judge, giving YOU the upper hand in court! When your in a court of record the tribunal has the discretion to rule not the judge!!!

In a court of record, a judge has no discretion.  Discretion is reserved to the independent tribunal. 

MORTGAGE AND INVESTMENT POOL SECURITIZATION AUDIT; http://www.securitizationauditreports.com/

Securitization Audits services; https://fraudstoppers.org/product/bloomberg-securitization-audit/

Securitization Audits services;http://paladinsecuritizationauditors.com/

Bloomberg Financial Report; https://www.bloomberg.com/

Security agreement

A___ security agreement, in the law of the United States, is a contract that governs the relationship between the parties to a kind of financial transaction known as a secured transaction. In a secured transaction, the Grantor (typically a borrower but possibly a guarantor or surety) assigns, grants and pledges to the grantee (typically the lender) a security interest in personal property which is referred to as the collateral. Examples of typical collateral are shares of stock, livestock, and vehicles. A security agreement is not used to transfer any interest in real property (land/real estate), only personal property. The document used by lenders to obtain a lien on real property is a mortgage or deed of trust.

The security agreement sets out the various rights the grantee will have with respect to the collateral, which are in addition to all other rights which the lender may have by law, such as those rights contained in Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code which has been adopted in some form by each state in the United States. The Security Agreement also addresses issues such as permitted sales or other transactions with the collateral in the ordinary course of the grantor's business and notices that may be required to be given by the grantee to the grantor if certain actions are taken. 

For agreements pertaining to the national security of participating states, see Treaty.

Continued education link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Security_agreement

U.C.C. - ARTICLE 9 - SECURED TRANSACTIONS (2010)

Primary tabs

Part 1. General Provisions[Subpart 1. Short Title, Definitions, and General Concepts]

  • § 9-101. SHORT TITLE.
  • § 9-102. DEFINITIONS AND INDEX OF DEFINITIONS.
  • § 9-103. PURCHASE-MONEY SECURITY INTEREST; APPLICATION OF PAYMENTS; BURDEN OF ESTABLISHING.
  • § 9-104. CONTROL OF DEPOSIT ACCOUNT.
  • § 9-105. CONTROL OF ELECTRONIC CHATTEL PAPER.
  • § 9-106. CONTROL OF INVESTMENT PROPERTY.
  • § 9-107. CONTROL OF LETTER-OF-CREDIT RIGHT.
  • § 9-108. SUFFICIENCY OF DESCRIPTION.

Continued education link: https://www.law.cornell.edu/ucc/9

Our goal is to claim our right's from trespass by way of Fraud; conspiracy; extortion; Rico/racketeering; committed by banks. Remember any questions please reach out we can work together to protect the peoples right!

5.) Why do you pay for registration and license fees every year when you're free to travel in your private automobile ? 

Shuttlesworth v. Birmingham 394 U.S. 147 (1969). U.S. Supreme Court says No License Necessary To Drive Automobile On Public Highways/Streets No License Is Necessary Copy and Share Freely YHVH.name 3 “The word ‘operator’ shall not include any person who solely transports his own property and who transports no persons or property for hire or compensation.”

Traveler. Bouvier's Law Dictionary, 1914 ed. One who passes from place to place, whether for pleasure, instruction, business, or health." Locket v State, 47 Ala. 45; 

Driver. Bouvier's Law Dictionary, (1914) p. 940. One employed in conducting a coach, carriage, wagon, or other vehicle...

Driver. Black's Law Dictionary, 3rd Ed One employed in conducting or operating a coach, carriage, wagon, or other vehicle, with horses, mules, or other animals, or a bicycle, tricycle, or motor car, though not a street railroad car. See Davis v. Petrinovich, 112 Ala. 654, 21 So. 344, 36 L.R.A. 615; Isaacs v. Railroad Co., 7 Am. Rep. 418, 47 N.Y. 122;

In California this is the structure: 

 California Vehicle Code Sec. 17460

The California Vehicle Code is not law. It is a contract. By accepting a driver's license,(objection/ UCC-1-308) you give permission to the state to sue you (give you traffic tickets). If it actually were law, they would not need your consent to prosecute you. (objection/UCC-1-308)

 

CVC 17460

The acceptance or retention by a resident (people domicil in this state)of this state of a driver's license (objection/UCC-1-308) issued pursuant to the provisions of this code, shall constitute the consent (objection/UCC-1-308) of the person (not people) that service of summons may be made upon him (the person not you the people) within or without this state, whether or not he (person) is then a resident (domicil) of this state, in any action brought in the courts of this state upon a cause of action arising in this state out of his (person) operation of a motor vehicle anywhere within this state. (objection/UCC-1-308)
(Amended Ch. 720. Stats. 1967. Effective November 8, 1967.)
(Amended Ch. 622, Stats. 1971. Operative May 3, 1972.)
(Amended Ch. 618, Stats. 1972. Effective March 7, 1973.)

 

CVC 17459

The acceptance by a resident (people domicil in this state)of this state of a certificate of ownership or a certificate of registration of any motor vehicle or any renewal thereof, issued under the provisions of this code, shall constitute the consent by the person(not people) that service of summons may be made upon him (person not you the people) within or without this state, whether or not he (person) is then a resident (domicil) of this state, in any action brought in the courts of this state upon a cause of action arising in this state out of the ownership or operation of the vehicle. (objection/UCC-1-308)
(Amended Ch. 622. Stats. 1971. Operative May 3, 1972.)

This is how we the people can protect our rights. Read and review the above if you have any questions reach out for consulting.

Regulation Z or Z plates California; https://asnplatesandmore.us/products/california/z-plate-california-american-state-national-california-101automibile-02-50632485-v446649

6.) Why do you think your residence is in California, when you actually domicile in California?

DOMICIL. The place where a person has fixed his ordinary dwelling, without a present intention of removal. 10 Mass. 488; 8 Cranch, 278; Ersk. Pr. of Law of Scotl. B. 1, tit. 2, s. 9; Denisart, tit. Domicile, 1, 7, 18, 19; Voet, Pandect, lib. 5, tit. 1, 92, 97; 5 Madd. Ch. R. 379; Merl. Rep. tit. Domicile; 1 Binn. 349, n.; 4 Humph. 346. The law of domicil is of great importance in those countries where the maxim "actor sequitur forum rei" is applied to the full extent. Code Civil, art. 102, &c.; 1 Toullier, 318.

2. A man cannot be without a domicil, for he is not supposed to have abandoned his last domicil until he has acquired a new one. 5 Ves. 587; 3 Robins. 191; 1 Binn. 349, n.; 10 Pick. 77. Though by the Roman law a man might abandon his domicil, and, until be acquired a. new one, he was without a domicil. By fixing his residence at two different places a man may have two domicils at one and the same time; as, for example, if a foreigner, coming to this country, should establish two houses, one in New York and the, other in New Orleans, and pass one-half of the year in each; he would, for most purposes, have two domicils. But it is to be observed that circumstances which might be held sufficient to establish a commercial domicil in time of war, and a matrimonial, or forensic or political domicil in time of peace, might not be such as would establish a principal or testamentary domicil, for there is a wide difference in applying the law of domicil to contracts and to wills. Phill. on Dom. xx; 11 Pick. 410 10 Mass. 488; 4 Wash. C. C. R. 514.

3. There are three kinds of domicils, namely: 1. The domicil of origin. domicilium originis vel naturale. 2. The domicil by operation of law, or necessary domicil. 3. Domicil of choice.

RESIDENCE. The place of one's domicil. (q. v.) There is a difference between a man's residence and his domicil. He may have his domicil in Philadelphia, and still he may have a residence in New York; for although a man can have but one domicil, he may have several residences. A residence is generally tran-sient in its nature, it becomes a domicil when it is taken up animo manendi. Roberts; Ecc. R. 75.

2. Residence is prima facie evidence of national character, but this may at all times be explained. When it is for a special purpose and transient in its nature, it does not destroy the national character.

3. In some cases the law requires that the residence of an officer shall be in the district in which he is required to exercise his functions. Fixing his residence elsewhere without an intention of returning, would violate such law. Vide the cases cited under the article Domicil; Place of residence.

7.) Why would you think you are a person. When in fact you are one of the people, of your state, like California, a state national, Californian or American Nationals?

The statutory definition of person used in statutes within the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 currently in use today in the territorial jurisdiction of the District of Columbia do not include or make reference to American Nationals as a result of the territorial limitations placed against the National Government per the Constitution. Such statutory words or phrases that illustrate the fact are highlighted in part as follows.

The Ficticious Legal Entity Called “a Person” continued education & training link: https://battleofearth.wordpress.com/2010/02/15/the-ficticious-legal-entity-called-a-person/

(1) Person - defined at 26 USC §7701(a)(1) only referencing statutory legal fictions: https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/26/7701

(2 ) U.S. person - defined at 26 USC §7701(a) (30) only referencing statutory legal fictions: https://www.law.cornell.edu/definitions/uscode.php?width=840&height=800&iframe=true&def_id=26-USC-1081524982-1199109669&term_occur=999&term_src=title:26:subtitle:F:chapter:79:section:7701

(3) Taxpayer - defined at 26 USC §7701(a) (14) references any 'person' subject to:https://www.law.cornell.edu/definitions/uscode.php?height=800&def_id=26-USC-261978486-1199109727&term_occur=999&term_src=title:26:subtitle:F:chapter:79:section:7701

(4) U.S. Citizen - defined at 8 USC §1401(a)(1): https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/8/1401 only referencing a statutory legal fiction that was legislatively born in the District of Columbia and are property of the National Government and thus under the dominion or control of the National Government within its limited geographical and legislative jurisdiction. Is clearly illustrated in 3C Am Jur 2d Section 2689 for US Citizens.

The Implementing Regulation 26 CFR §1.871-1(a): https://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/26/1.871-1 makes reference that Nonresident Alien Individuals can only be liable for the statutory laws of the jurisdiction of the District of Columbia if they choose to work for the National Government. Therefore, only federal workers derive income that is effectively Connected with the conduct of a statutory ' trade or business' within the District of Columbia

8.) Why would you enter into a(transmitting utility/DEBTOR/Secured Party* ucc-1 FS) contract, which does not offer you any benefit, takes your labor energy, Collateralize's it, creates bonds and sells them on the open market, without your knowledge?

The source of all value is labor continued education link: https://www.bitchute.com/video/uuG5KTxpKbPX/

Nudd v. Burrows, 91 U.S 426. “Fraud vitiates everything” 70 Am. Jur. 2nd Sec. 50, VII Civil Liability “Fraud destroys the validity of everything into which it enters,” S.C.R. 1795,

Penhallow v. Doane’s Administrators 3 U.S. 54; 1 L.Ed. 57; 3 Dall. 54; and, b. "the contracts between them" involve U.S. citizens, which are deemed as Corporate Entities: c. "Therefore, the U.S. citizens residing in one of the states of the union, are classified as property and franchises of the federal government as an "individual entity"" 

 Wheeling Steel Corp. v. Fox, 298 U.S. 193, 80 L.Ed. 1143, 56 S.Ct. 773 Alexander v. Bothsworth, 1915. “Party cannot be bound by contract that he has not made or authorized. Free consent is an indispensable element in making valid contracts.” (Ralph M. Brown Act, & Bagley-Keene Open Meeting Act.)

FRAUD, contracts, torts. Any trick or artifice employed by one person to induce another to fall into an error, or to detain him in it, so that he may make an agreement contrary to his interest. The fraud may consist either, first, in the misrepresentation, or, secondly, in the concealment of a material fact. Fraud, force and vexation, are odious in law. Booth, Real Actions, 250. Fraud gives no action, however, without damage; 3 T. R. 56; and in matters of contract it is merely a defence; it cannot in any case constitute a new contract. 7 Vez. 211; 2 Miles' Rep. 229. It is essentially ad hominem. 4 T. R. 337-8.

The only remedy is to take back your legal entity in the secured party creditor position and file a UCC 1 Financial Statement:

(we will help fill it out if you have any question)*** Link below UCC -1 Financial Statement: follow instructions 

/wp-content/uploads/go-x/u/e925a610-28d2-4363-820a-f2cf1bcf3401/UCC1.pdf

Judgment made when the court lacks subject matter jurisdiction is void.” Clark v. State, 727 N.E.2d 18, transfer denied 741 N.E.2d 1247 (2000)

►“No state legislator or executive or judicial officer can war against the Constitution without violating his undertaking to support it.” The constitutional theory is that we the people are the sovereigns, the state and federal officials only our agents." Cooper v. Aaron, 358 U.S. 1, 78 S.Ct. 1401 (1958).

***Amendment V ***

 *** nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.***

9.)*Who is the debtor transmitting utility, and who is the secured party exclusive agent or universal agency,?

The DEBTOR / grantee is a Legal Entity according to the Uniform Commercial Code. With the Birth Certificate of the DEBTOR / grantee being registered in international commerce and having bonds sold on it, the DEBTOR / grantee became the surety on the bonds, or the "pledge." The asset bonded (surety) is the "energy" or the labor of the DEBTOR

YOU are the transmitting utility. The FIRST M. LAST all caps name listed on the Birth Certificate.

FIRSTNAME (space) MIDDLEINITIAL. (space) LAST  (copyright name/Trade-name trademark)

JOHN M. DOE signature is the transmitting utility. this is an example.

Ok then who should be the secured party for all this commercial traffic of financial instruments. NOT YOU!!! A transmitting utility agent, utilized for the purpose of transmitting commercial activity for the benefit of the Grantor / Secured Party, an exclusive agent, with universal agency, a public agent, serving as a conduit for the transmission of goods and services in Commercial Activity, a thing to interact, contract, and exchange goods, services, obligations, and liabilities in Commerce with other Debtors/ grantees, corporations, and artificial persons. In short a legal entity refers to a person; 

entity; An entity refers to a person or organization possessing separate and distinct legal rights, such as an Individual, Partnership, or corporation.  An entity can, among other things, own property engage in business, enter into contracts, pay taxes, sue and be sued. An entity is capable of operating legally, suing and making decisions through agents, e.g. a corporation, a state, or an association.  

A legal entity corresponds to the notion of a legal person. A legal entity holds rights, and each entity has a legal status.

[Last updated in February of 2022 by the Wex Definitions Team]

The exclusive agency, with universal agency which committed fraud, by steeling your name and is using it in their financial scam. Which leave's you in the dark and the surety on their fraudulent loans. Remember banks don't lend credit. 

"It is not within those statutory powers for a national bank, even though solvent, to lend its credit to another in any of the various ways in which that might be done." Federal Intermediate Credit Bank v. L 'Herrison, 33 F 2d 841, 842 (1929).

Become the secured party creditor and take back the use of your good name!!! (copyright name/Trade-name trademark) File a UUC 1 Financial Statement and correct the fraud and become your own private banker. 

This is the link for UCC 1 financial Statement follow instructions. (we will help fill it in just ask give us a call)

/wp-content/uploads/go-x/u/e925a610-28d2-4363-820a-f2cf1bcf3401/UCC1.pdf

Canon 2057 Any Administrator or Executor that refuses to immediately dissolve a Cestui Que (Vie) Trust, upon a Person establishing their status and competency, is guilty of fraud and fundamental breach of their fiduciary duties requiring their immediate removal and punishment. One can take control of it the Trust Estate or “Dissolve” it completely and move all Asset to your own account and take control of your Copyright Name and NAME Trademark and Trade-name.

FRAUD, noun [Latin fraus.]

Deceit; deception; trick; artifice by which the right or interest of another is injured; a stratagem intended to obtain some undue advantage; an attempt to gain or the obtaining of an advantage over another by imposition or immoral means, particularly deception in contracts, or bargain and sale, either by stating falsehoods, or suppressing truth

***Amendment V ***

***No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, *** nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.***

10.) Why does it say "In god we trust" on the dollar and in court you attest to tell the truth so help you god?

Webster's Dictionary 1828 

Definition: GOD

1. The Supreme Being; Jehovah; the eternal and infinite spirit, the creator, and the sovereign of the universe.

GOD is a spirit; and they that worship him, must worship him in spirit and in truth. John 4:24.

2. A false god; a heathen deity; an idol.

Fear not the gods of the Amorites. Judges 6:10.

3. A prince; a ruler; a magistrate or judge ; a Tribunal and/or Special Master; in a court of record ; link court of record an angel. Thou shalt not revile the gods, nor curse the ruler of thy people.

Exodus 22:28. Psalms 97:7.

[Gods here is a bad translation.]     

4. Any person or thing exalted too much in estimation, or deified and honored as the chief good.

Whose god is their belly. Philippians 3:19.   GOD, verb transitive To deify. [Not used.]

Remember who is the tribunal in a court of record. In your court we believe, trust yourself God will guide you. Also remember they are praying on the people who lack education and training. Please review below!

PRAYER, chanc. pleadings. That part of a bill which asks for relief.

2. The skill of the solicitor is to be exercised in framing this part of the bill. An accurate specification of the matters to be decreed in complicated cases, requires great discernment and experience; Coop. Eq. Pl. 13; it is varied as the case is made out, concluding always with a prayer of general relief, at the discretion of the court. Mitf. Pl. 45.

PRAYER OF PROCESS, chanc. plead. That part of a bill which prays that the defendant be compelled to appear and answer the bill, and abide the determination of the court on the subject, is called prayer of process. This prayer must contain the name's of all Persons who are intended to be made parties. Coop. Eq. Pl. 16; Story, Eq. Pl. 44.

PRAYER FOR RELIEF, chan. pleading. This is the name of that part of the bill, which, as the phrase imports, prays for relief. This prayer is either general or special but the general course is for the plaintiff to make a special prayer for particular relief to which he thinks himself entitled, and then to conclude with a prayer of general relief at the discretion of the court. Story, Eq. Pl. 40; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 4174-6.

11.) Why would you feel obligated to pay an offer/obligation when its the United States, responsibility?

This is done through the use (stolen all cap's name) of your name and according to them. "U.S. Citizen - defined at 8 USC §1401(a)(1) only referencing a statutory legal fiction that was legislatively born in the District of Columbia and are property of the National Government and thus under the dominion or control of the National Government within its limited geographical and legislative jurisdiction. JOINT RESOLUTION TO SUSPEND THE GOLD STANDARD AND ABROGATE THE GOLD CLAUSE JUNE 5, 1933 H.J.Res.192 73rd Cong. 1st Session

(a) every provision contained in or made with respect to any obligation which purports to give the obligee a right to require payment in gold or a particular kind of coin or currency, or in an amount of money of the United States measured thereby, is declared to be against public policy; and no such provision contained in or made with respect to any obligation hereafter incurred. Every obligation, heretofore or hereafter incurred, whether or not any such provisions is contained therein or made with respect thereto, shall be discharged upon payment, dollar for dollar, in any such coin or currency which at the time is legal tender for public and private debts***.( Private debits = That means any obligation attached to your stolen NAME in ALL CAPITALS "JOHN DOW HENRY")*** Any such provision contained in any law authorizing obligations to be issued by or under authority of the United States, is hereby repealed, but the repeal of any such provision shall not invalidate any other provision or authority contained in such law. 

(b) As used in the resolution, the term "obligation" means an obligation (including every obligation of and to the United States, excepting currency) payable in money of the United States; and the term "coin or currency" means coin or currency of the United States, including Federal Reserve notes and circulating notes of Federal Reserve banks and national banking associations.

U.S. Citizen - defined at 8 USC §1401(a)(1) only referencing a statutory legal fiction that was legislatively born in the District of Columbia and are property of the National Government and thus under the dominion or control of the National Government within its limited geographical and legislative jurisdiction. Is clearly illustrated in 3C Am Jur 2d Section 2689 for US Citizens.

H.J.RES 192 73 CONGRESS.1ST SESSION***

/wp-content/uploads/go-x/u/9928e4db-ad1e-4ecc-88a8-a9faa7ec8949/JOINT-RESOLUTION-TO-SUSPEND-THE-GOLD-STANDARD.docx

How to deal with bent copper/their courts, summons, and obligations training doc: (READ it five time or more it will make sense)

/wp-content/uploads/go-x/u/4b0ca84b-14b2-4269-8b4c-68ce1ef2e86b/Trade-liberty-for-safety-or-money-you_2.docx

BOUVIER"S LAW DICTIONARY, 1856 EDITION - LETTER  O

OBLIGATION. In its general and most extensive sense, obligation is synony- mous with duty. In a more technical meaning, it is a tie which binds us to pay or to do something agreeably to the laws and customs of the country in which the obligation is made. Just. Inst. 1. 3, t. 14. The term obligation also signifies the instrument or writing by which the contract is witnessed. And in another sense, an obligation still subsists, although the civil obligation is said to be a bond containing a penalty, with a condition annexed for the payment of money, performance of covenants or the like; it differs from a bill, which is generally without a penalty or condition, though it may be obligatory. Co. Litt. 172. It is also defined to be a deed whereby a man binds himself under a penalty to do a thing. Com. Dig. Obligation, A. The word obligation, in its most technical signification, ex vi termini, imports a sealed instrument. 2 S. & R. 502; 6 Verm. 40; 1 Blackf. 241; Harp. R. 434; 2 Porter, 19; 1 Bald. 129. See 1 Bell's Com. b. 3, p. 1, c. 1, page 293; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.

2. Obligations are divided into imperfect obligations, and perfect obligations.

3. Imperfect obligations are those which are not binding on us as between man and man, and for the non-performance of which we are accountable to God only; such as charity or gratitude. In this sense an obligation is a mere duty. Poth. Ob. art. Prel. n. 1.

4. A perfect obligation is one which gives a right to another to require us to give him something or not to do something. These obligations are either natural or moral, or they are civil.

We the people must take notice: 

West Virginia v. EPA US Supreme Court; 

On June 30th, as one of the last opinions before its summer recess, the Supreme Court held in a 6-3 decision that EPA lacked the authority under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) to set an emissions cap for greenhouse gases (GHGs) based on generation shifting. Clean Air Act ; https://www.epa.gov/clean-air-act-overview/clean-air-act-title-i-air-pollution-prevention-and-control-parts-through-d

Norton v. Shelby County Tennessee Supreme Court; Following the decision of the highest court of the Tennessee in Pope v. Phifer, 3 Heiskell 691, and other cases, this Court holds that the Board of Commissioners of Shelby County, organized under the Act of March 9, 1867, had no lawful existence; that it was an unauthorized and illegal body; that its members were usurpers of the functions and powers of the justices of peace of the county; that their action in holding a county court was void, and that their acts in subscribing to the stock of the Mississippi River Railroad Company and issuing bonds in payment therefor were void.

U.S. Supreme Court Norton v. Shelby County, 118 U.S. 425 (1886) Norton v. Shelby County Argued March 24-25, 1886 Decided May 10, 1886 : https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/118/425/

"All laws, rules and practices which are repugnant to the Constitution are null and void" [Marbury v. Madison, 5th US (2 Cranch) 137, 180] 

"Where rights secured by the Constitution are involved, there can be no rule making or legislation which would abrogate them." Miranda v. Arizona, 384 US 436, 491.

“There can be no limitation on the power of the people of the United States (of America). By their authority the State Constitutions were made and by their authority the Constitution for the United States (of America) was established…” Hauenstein vs. Lynham (100 US 483) 

“Judgment made when the court lacks subject matter jurisdiction is void.” Clark v. State, 727 N.E.2d 18, transfer denied 741 N.E.2d 1247 (2000)

There are no “regulations” extending to the Commissioner of the IRS or the Department of the Treasury their authority to the 50 Union States – 26 CFR 7802(a).

In IRS publication 519, “A nonresident alien” [American National] who never worked in the U.S. Government in the United States [meaning D.C.] will not be liable for the U.S. [D.C.] income tax.

26 CFR §1.871-1(a) reflects the deception by the use of a statutory "election' of a voluntary nature in order to make American Nationals liable for the federal income tax when the National Government was denied and deprived of such power by the United States Supreme Court in Pollock v. Farmer's Loan & Trust Company, 157 U.S. 429 (1895).

The term “United States” is defined in 31 USC 321(d)(2) and in 26 U.S.C sec 7001 as meaning the federal government in the District of Columbia and it is not defined as the 50 states of the union per 26 U.S.C. 7408 (d).

"It is the duty of all officials whether legislative, judicial, executive, administrative, or ministerial to so perform every official act as not to violate constitutional provisions." Montgomery v state 55 Fla. 97-45SO.879.

26 USC 7701(a)(31) basically says that an American National's Estate is a “tax-exempt” foreign estate or trust. It's a “foreign” estate because American Nationals, living in one of the 50 states of the Republic, are by law living in a “foreign” state related to that other “foreign” state named the District of Columbia that is not under the original Constitution (1789). 

Beys AFROYIM, Petitioner, v. Dean RUSK, Secretary of State. Supreme Cour 387 U.S. 253 87 S.Ct. 1660 18 L.Ed.2d 757 No. 456. Argued Feb. 20, 1967. Decided May 29, 1967.;The fundamental issue before this Court here, as it was in Perez, is whether Congress can consistently with the Fourteenth Amendment enact a law stripping an American of his citizenship which he has never voluntarily renounced or given up. Remember Americans represent the people which created the government (we the people, principals, tribunals, beneficiary of the estate trust aka "PERSON" ) which is not a "U.S. Citizen", or "United State Citizen" ( both are a creation of the federal government; what one creates one controls) which the supreme court, or the united states supreme court, administrators are work hard to confuse the issue. Do not be confused people are above the supreme court; a court of record is the superior court as long as the tribunal commands his competent jurisdiction and decrees law!!! PERIOD!!! ( REVIEW COURT OF RECORD LINK; a court of record to be known) Continued education and training link; https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/387/253

These questions are there to spark a conversation. Ask the reader how would more money in your pocket help. What would having more control confidence and direction provide for you, in your personnel life's liberty. What about your standard of living or that of your family. How can having more control, confidence , and direction in your personnel and professional life benefit you.  We believe strongly that the people can take back command of their liberty, private property, in the pursuit of happiness, and financial freedom. Through education, training, and developing actions plans which seek to accomplish these goals.

 

 The journey starts now !!! 

 

Reach out and let's take back our liberty together!!!

SUPPORT: WETHEPEOPLELIBERTYNOW @ https://www.givesendgo.com/wethepeoplelibertynow

 

James Otis, Jr., a Boston lawyer, who wrote in The Rights of the Boston Colonies, 1764, 

“Taxes are not to be laid on the people but by their consent.”

 

Men must be governed by God or they will be ruled by tyrants. 

William Pen

Magna carta June 15, A.D. 1215

ALLINE CONSULTING

IS COMMITTED TO THE PEOPLE'S LIBERTY

The foundation of liberty is in the Confirmatio Cartarum October 10, 1297.

 This document is a bridge between the Constitutional protection of one's access to the common law, and the Magna Carta. The modern value of the following is that it links the Magna Carta to the Common Law. The U.S. Constitution guarantees one's access to the Common Law, i.e. the Magna Carta. (See the next to last line of the first paragraph.)

 

CONFIRMATIO CARTARUM [26]
October 10, 1297


EDWARD, by the grace of God, King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Guian[27], to all those that these present letters shall hear or see, greeting. Know ye that we, to the honour of God and of Holy Church, and to the profit of our realm, have granted for us and our heirs, that the Charter of liberties, and the Charter of the forest[28], which were made by common assent of all the realm, in the time of King HENRY our father, shall be kept in every point without breach. (2) And we will that the same charters shall be sent under our seal, as well to our justices of the forest, as to others, and to all sheriffs of shires, and to all our other officers, and to all our cities throughout the realm, together with our writs, in the which it shall be contained, that they cause the foresaid charters to be published, and to declare to the people that we have confirmed them in all points; (3) and that our justices, sheriffs, mayors, and other ministers, which under us have the laws of our land to guide, shall allow the said charters pleaded before them in judgement in all their points, that is to wit, the Great Charter as the common law[*] and the Charter of the forest, for the wealth of our realm.

2. AND we will, That if any judgement be given from henceforth contrary to the points of the charters aforesaid by the justices, or by any other our ministers that hold plea before them against the points of the charters, it shall be undone, and holden for nought.

3. AND we will, That the same charters shall be sent, under our seal, to cathedral churches throughout our realm, there to remain, and shall be read before the people two times by the year.

4. AND that all archbishops and bishops shall pronounce the sentence of excommunication against all those that by word, deed, or counsel do contrary to the foresaid charters, or that in any point break or undo them. (2) and that the said curses be twice a year denounced and published by the prelates aforesaid. (3) And if the said prelates, or any of them, be remiss in the denunciation of the said sentences, the archbishops of Canterbury and York for the time being shall compel and distrein them to the execution of their duties in form aforesaid.

5. AND for so much as divers people of our realm are in fear that the aids and tasks[29] which they have given to us before time towards our wars and other business, of their own grant and good will (howsoever they were made) might turn to a bondage to them and their heirs, because they might be at another time found in the rolls, and likewise for the prises taken throughout the realm by our ministers: (2) We have granted for us and our heirs, that we shall not draw such aids, tasks, nor prises into a custom, for any thing that hath been done heretofore, be it by roll or any other precedent that may be founden.

6. Moreover we have granted for us and our heirs, as well to archbishops, bishops, abbots, priors, and other folk of holy church, as also to earls, barons, and to all the communalty of the land, that for no business from henceforth we shall take such manner of aids, tasks, nor prises, but by the common assent of the realm, and for the common profit thereof, saving the ancient aids, and prises due and accustomed.

7. AND for so much as the more part of the communalty of the realm find themselves sore grieved with the maletent of wools, that is to wit, a toll of forty shillings for every sack of wool, and have made petition to us to release the same; We at their requests have yearly released it, and have for granted us and our heirs, that we shall not take such things without their common assent and good will, saving to us and our heirs the custom of wools, skins, and leather, granted before by the communalty aforesaid. In witness of which things we have caused these our letters to be made patents. Witness EDWARD our son at London the tenth day of October, the five and twentieth year of our reign.

 


         Wise men are instructed by reason;
       Men of less understanding, by experience;
       The most ignorant, by necessity;
       The beasts by nature.
       Letters to Atticus[?], Marcus Tullius Cicero

 

 



We the People's Attitude

Must be Positive !!!

Attitude is very important. Common law strategy will not work if you have a negative attitude. Many people who are defending their rights are also very angry. Not that they are not justified. However, anger is a luxury of the poor. As the saying goes, "Don't get mad. Get even."

Don't let your emotions entangle your logic!!!



WE THE PEOPLE !!!  
SPECIAL MASTER SERVICE!!! 

THROUGH OUR CONSULTING SERVICE'S, THIS SERVICE CAN BE OFFERED AFTER CONSULTATION INTERVIEW.
 "SPECIAL MASTER SERVICES" 

Special Master

In the law of the United States, a special master is generally a subordinate official appointed by a tribunal to ensure judicial orders are followed, or in the alternative, to hear evidence on behalf of the tribunal and make recommendations to the judge as to the disposition of a matter. The special master should not be confused with the traditional common law concept of a special master,  who commands a judge of the High Court to deal with summary and administrative matters falling short of a full trial. In the federal judiciary of the United States, a special master is a tribunal to a federal court. Rule 53 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure allows a federal courts tribunal  to appoint a special master, with the consent of the parties, to conduct proceedings and report to the Court.

California Code, Evidence Code - EVID § 451 link: https://codes.findlaw.com/ca/evidence-code/evid-sect-451/

California Code, Evidence Code - EVID § 452 Link: https://codes.findlaw.com/ca/evidence-code/evid-sect-452/

Court of Record link: https://www.1215.org/lawnotes/lawnotes/courtrec.htm

CANON 1; A JUDGE SHALL UPHOLD THE INTEGRITY* AND INDEPENDENCE* OF THE JUDICIARY; An independent, impartial,* and honorable judiciary is indispensable to justice in our society. A judge should participate in establishing, maintaining, and enforcing high standards of conduct, and shall personally observe those standards so that the integrity* and independence* of the judiciary is preserved. The provisions of this code are to be construed and applied to further that objective. A judicial decision or administrative act later determined to be incorrect legally is not itself a violation of this code.

COURT. An agency of the "sovereign" created by it directly or indirectly under its authority, consisting of one or more officers, established and maintained for the purpose of hearing and determining issues of law and fact regarding legal rights and alleged violations thereof, and of applying the sanctions of the law, authorized to exercise its powers in the course of law at times and places previously determined by lawful authority. [Isbill v. Stovall, Tex.Civ.App., 92 S.W.2d 1067, 1070; Black's Law Dictionary, 4th Edition, page 425]

California Constitution Article VIJudicial Section 1. The "judicial power" of this "State" is vested in the "Supreme Court", "Courts of appeal", and   "Superior Courts", all of which are  "Courts of Record".

COURT OF RECORD. To be a court of record a court must have four characteristics, and may have a fifth. They are:

A. A "judicial tribunal" having attributes and exercising functions "independently"of the person of the magistrate designated generally to hold it.[Black's Law Dictionary, 4th Ed., 425, 426]

B. Proceeding according to the course of"common law".[Black's Law Dictionary, 4th Ed., 425, 426]

C. Its acts and "judicial proceedings"are enrolled, or recorded, for a "perpetual memory and testimony".[Black's Law Dictionary, 4th Ed., 425, 426]

D. Has "power" to "fine or imprison for contempt". [Black's Law Dictionary, 4th Ed., 425, 426]

E. Generally possesses a "seal". [Black's Law Dictionary, 4th Ed., 425, 426]

COURTS OF RECORD and COURTS NOT OF RECORD The former being those whose acts and judicial proceedings are enrolled, or recorded, for a perpetual memory and testimony, and which have power to fine or imprison for contempt.  Error lies to their judgments, and they generally possess a seal.  Courts not of record are those of inferior dignity, which have no power to fine or imprison, and in which the proceedings are not enrolled or recorded.  3 Bl. Comm. 24; 3 Steph. Comm. 383; The Thomas Fletcher, C.C.Ga., 24 F. 481; Ex parte Thistleton, 52 Cal 225; Erwin v. U.S., D.C.Ga., 37 F. 488, 2 L.R.A. 229; Heininger v. Davis, 96 Ohio St. 205, 117 N.E. 229, 231.

Personal treaties relate exclusively to the "persons" of the "contracting sovereigns", such as family alliances, and treaties guaranteeing the throne to a particular sovereign and his family. As they relate to the "persons", they expire of course on the death of the sovereign or the extinction of his family. 

CA Gov't Code Section 11120 ; The people of this state do not yield their sovereignty to the agencies which serve them.

California Government Code Section 6250: In enacting this chapter, the Legislature, mindful of the right of individuals to privacy, finds and declares that access to information concerning the conduct of the people’s business is a fundamental and necessary right of every "person" in this state. 

Person - defined at Title 26 U.S.C. §7701(a)(1) only referencing statutory legal fictions: https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/26/7701

Title 26 U.S.C. Section 7806: Construction of title link https://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title26-section7806&num=0&edition=prelim

The criminal court is an inferior court because it is operating according to special rules (criminal code) and not according to the common law. Even if its name is "Superior Court of ....." it is still an inferior court so long as it is operating according to some code or statutes rather than the common law.

On the other hand, a court of record ( under command of a "Tribunal" / "Special Master" one of the People; see; a court of record ) so long as it meets the criteria, is a true superior court.

A_____ "court of record" is a judicial tribunal having attributes and exercising functions independently of the person of the magistrate designated generally to hold it, and proceeding according to the course of common law, its acts and proceedings being enrolled for a perpetual memorial.  Jones v. Jones, 188 Mo.App. 220, 175 S.W. 227, 229; Ex parte Gladhill, 8 Metc. Mass., 171, per Shaw, C.J.  See, also, Ledwith v. Rosalsky, 244 N.Y. 406, 155 N.E. 688, 689.

CANON 2057 Any Administrator or Executor ( Magistrate or justice) that refuses to immediately dissolve a Cestui Que (Vie) Trust, upon a "Person" (Tribunal-principal-beneficiary) establishing their status and competency, is guilty of fraud and fundamental breach of their fiduciary duties requiring their immediate removal and punishment. 

Federal Rules of Civil Procedure link: https://www.law.cornell.edu/rules/frcp

 

Special Master contractual agreement document link: 223e25e5-125f-400a-aeca-e59f0ba69a45

Special Master Law of the case structure template document link: 6ff01045-2eb8-4b2d-b6cb-5d599a1a6573



WE THE PEOPLE LEADERSHIP

COMPLEX COMPLAINT & CLAIM ISSUES NEED UNDERSTANDING AND LEADERSHIP TO RESOLVE!!!

COMPLAINANT. One who makes a complaint. A plaintiff in a suit in chancery is so called.

COMPLAINT, crim. law. The allegation made to a proper officer, that some person, whether known or unknown, has been guilty of a designated offence, with an offer to prove the fact, and a request that the offender may be punished.

2. To have a legal effect, the complaint must be supported by such evidence as shows that an offence has been committed, and renders it certain or probable that it was committed by the person named or described in the complaint.

CLAIM. A claim is a challenge of the ownership of a thing which a man has not in possession, and is wrongfully withheld by another. Plowd. 359; Wee i Dall.444; 12 S. & R. 179.

2. In Pennsylvania, the entry on of the demand of a mechanic or materialman for work done or material furnished in the erection of a building, in those counties to which the lien laws extend, is called a claim.

3. A continual c1aim is a claim made in a particular way, to preserve the' rights of a feoffee. See Continual claim.

CONTINUAL CLAIM, English law. When the feoffee of land is prevented from taking possession by fear of menaces or bodily harm, he may make a claim -to the land in the presence of the vares, and if this claim is regularly made once every year and a day, which is then called a continual claim, it preserves to the feoffee his rights, and is equal to a legal entry. 3 Bl. Com. 175; 2 Bl. Com. 320; 1 Chit. Pr. 278 (a) in note; Crabbe's Inst. E. L. 403.

4. Claim of conusance is defined to be an intervention by a third person, demanding jurisdiction of a cause against a plaintiff, who has chosen to commence his action out of the claimant's court. 2 Wils. 409; 1 Cit. Pb. 403; Vin. Ab. Conusance; Com. Dig. Courts, P; Bac. Ab. Courts, D 3; 3 Bl. Com. 298.

CLAIMANT. In the courts of admiralty, when the suit is in rem, the cause is entitled in the Dame of the libellant against the thing libelled, as A B v. Ten cases of calico and it preserves that title through the whole progress of the suit.When a person is authorized and admitted to defend the libel, he is called the claimant. The United States v. 1960 bags of coffee; 8 Cranch, R. 398; United States v. The Mars; 8 Cranch, R. 417; 30 hhds. of sugar, (Brentzon, claimant, v. Boyle. 9 Cranch, R. 191.

FEOFFMENT, conveyancing. A gift of any corporeal hereditaments to another. It operates by transmutation of possession, and it is essential to its completion that the seisin be passed. Watk. Prin. Conv. 183. This term also signifies the instrument or deed by which such hereditament is conveyed.

LITIGATION. A contest authorized by law, in a court of justice, for the purpose of enforcing a right.

2. In order to prevent injustice, courts of equity will restrain a party from further litigation, by a writ of injunction; for example, after two verdicts on trials at bar, in favor of the plaintiff, a perpetual injunction was decreed. 

Patience is the companion of wisdom.”


  Saint Augustine

 

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